jueves, febrero 08, 2007

Donald Schön

Según algunos reportes, los sitios con el mayor crecimiento en Internet son aquellos escritos en español. Sin embargo, al querer hablar un poco sobre el trabajo de Donald Schön y su relevancia en el diseño, Google arroja los siguientes resultados:

41,800 de "Donald Schön" design
365 de "Donald Schön" diseño

Es decir, que hay 115 VECES MAS artículos al respecto en inglés que en español. Si alguien encuentra o escribe algo relevante, aquí lo iremos agregando como comentarios a esta entrada.

Mientras tanto, hago las siguientes recomendaciones sobre quien acuñó quizá una de las frases más famosas en el diseño (después de "menos es más" y "la forma sigue a la función": "designing is a conversation with the materials of a situation"...

1. Como introducción este artículo corto escrito por la Dra Martina Maria Keitsch:

2. Una obra clásica:

The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action by Donald A. Schon

3. Su traducción:

El Profesional Reflexivo por Donald A. Schon

4. Uno raro de encontrar: Schön, D.: 1963, Displacement of Concepts, Tavistock, London.

De este último algunas de mis notas personales:

- The process of metaphor or, as I will call it, the displacement of concepts… We speak as though a concept were a kind of concrete thing… Here concepts are seen as tools for coping with the world, for solving problems.

- While a given situation can be conceived in a variety of ways, it is always a concept-structured situation.

- Learning is interaction with new concepts. Because a new concept is one that comes up for the firt time, it is unexpected. It is subject to a special sort of attention and comes to be perceived like a figure against the background of familiar and therefore relatively unnoticed situations.

- [New concepts]… What is new is the first identification of a specific thing as an instance of an old concept. The concept itself does not change except in the trivial sense of being found applicable to one more instance… New concepts grow out of what has gone before and can be seen as changes in the old. But these changes are matters of degree… Our conceptual structure can be seen as a kind of amoeba. In the centre are the concept most crucial, most intimately tied to others, least willingly let go. Nearer the periphery are concepts less intimately tied… Degree of novelty may refer, therefore, to the recency of the concept’s emergence, or to the degree of centrality of the concept changed.

- For me, then, new concepts are those which emerge for the first time for an individual whether they are new for his culture or not.

- I have posed the problem of the emergence of new concepts, and suggested that new concepts come through the shift of old concepts to new situations. In this process the old concept is not applied to the new situation, as a concept to an instance, but is taken as a symbol or metaphor for the new situation. The new concept grows out of the making, elaboration and correction of the metaphor. There is no one point at which it emerges since the process is continuous, like the emergence of a biological species, and its freezing at any one point is always arbitrary.

- I will single out four [phases of new concepts] under the headings of transposition, interpretation, correction, and spelling out. These are not discrete events… but aspects of the process often out of sequence and often inseparable.

- There are no isolated concepts, but only concept clusters or, in an informal sense, theories… We could never be sure the list of these related concepts was complete. We could not even say, except in the context of a specific inquiry, which of these concepts was the ‘central’ one. The boundaries and the internal structure of the concept are changing and indistinct. The phase of transposition… goes on indefinitely as more and more concepts from the old concept cluster are shifted to the new situation… Transposition [is] interpretation, the assignment of a concept from the old cluster to a specific aspect of the new situation… But the two phases are still distinguishable, as evidenced by the fact that we are sometimes aware of wondering what aspect of the new situation an old concept is assignable to, or even whether it is assignable to anything at all.

- The new situation has a conceptual structure [that] resists some transposition and interpretation, and there is resulting adjustment in the process of displacement. This I call correction… It is like mutual adaptation, in which the old theory and the new concept-structured situation are modified in various ways so as to suit one another.

- In this way the metaphor is elaborated… Concepts from the old cluster… their reference to the new situation becomes more familiar and conventional… When the attempt is made to work out the relation between these senses –the areas of community and difference between the old and the transposed theory- I say that the metaphor is being spelled out.

- Characteristically, a new theory or an invention, after it has been made, can be seen to be derivable from other theories and things as well. This is not to say that other theories and devices would have been equally useful and evocative as a starting point for the idea.

- [There are] two ways of proceeding in the displacement of concepts: -beginning with a problem and searching for metaphor which will in its elaboration yield a hypothesis for a solution. – beginning with a metaphor, elaborating it, and developing the hypotheses it yields. These are characteristic, respectively, of problematic and speculative inquiry.

- Concepts can be understood as series of expectations of what would be perceived, given some perception, if a certain action were taken. If our world were suffused with novelty, none of these expectations would be fulfilled. There would be no reality. There wuld be no directed thought… Opennes to novelty, then, is openness to experience that is dangerous and potentially destructive… So that attentiveness to novelty… involves a form of personal risk-taking that is very high, p. 98.

- Our present views of the formation of new theories parallel early views of the origin of species: we tend to think in terms of denial of change or of ‘spontaneous generation’ (inspiration, strokes of genius), whereas the appearance and change of theories over time is much more suggestive of an evolutionary process. The displacement of concepts –the functioning of older theories as metaphors or projective models for new situations- is an essential process in this evolution… New concepts are neither illustions nor law-like recombinations of old ones. New concepts do not spring from nothing or from mysterious external sources. They come from old ones.

- It is possible if new concepts emerge out of the interaction of old concepts and new situations, where the old concept is not simply re-applied unchanged to a new instance but is that in terms of which the new instance is seen. This is what we have described as the displacement of concepts –a process in which old concepts, in order to function as projective models for new situations, come themselves to be seen in new ways, p. 192.

- A non-mysterious treatment of the emergence of conceptual novelty… the emergence of novelty as an interaction between two elements of the process, a kind of accommodation of these elements to one another. But what is the basis of this accommodation? What is the nature of the leverage the two elements exert on one another? A consideration of the displacement of concepts, in its various forms, leads to these questions. And these questions lead in turn to an inquiry well beyond the present one, p. 199.

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